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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

 

Iranian Contemporary History No. 60

 

History Hall

 

 
  Women during the Age of Pahlavi, Ashraf Pahlavi 
Niloufar Kasra
 
Ashraf Pahlavi the twin sister of Mohammad Reza shah was born on 4th, Aban 1919 (1298) in Tehran. Her father Reza khan, was the colonel of the Cossack’s quarters and her mother was Tajol-molok Ayromlu daughter of Mirpanj Teymour khan Ayromlu the high ranking official in the Cossack’s army. She was named Zahra and her birth certificate was so but when Reza Khan seized power and reigned she was titled Ashrafol-Molook or Ashraf.
 
As she says in her memoirs, her parents didn’t pay much attention to her, she was thought by private teachers and learned French from madam Arfa’, then she attended in Anooshiravan Dadgar lyce`e and studied there to her 16th year. In her 17 she got married to Ali Qavam by her father’s order and they had a son but they couldn’t get intimacy and they continued their common life till Reza Shah’s kingship.
 
Ashraf was an intrepid, power-seeking, proud and free liver woman and she was fond of political affairs. She was deprived from taking part in all political affairs until her father’s presence in Iran by September 1941 (shahrivar 1320). After ousting her father in September 1941; she immediately made gangs by her mother’s Assistance to utilize them as her executive agents to meddle with the governance. Among these individuals were Abdolhossein Hazhir, Dr. Manoochehr Eghbal, Jalal Shadman, Nosratian, Abbas Eskandari, Hassan Akbar and Razmara.
 
Ashraf’s sphere of activity increased gradually as by the year 1330 (1951) and seizing power of Dr. Mossadegh, hers came to a climax and Ashraf became the backbone of the court combat against Mossadegh. Her activity was in such extent that the prime minister exiled them (Ashraf and her mother) but she didn’t withdraw.
 
During her residence in Paris she interacted with Qawam preliminaries to Mossadegh downfall and prime ministry of Qawam, but Qawam with all political subterfuges and the support of the court stayed awhile in the chairmanship seat and Mossadegh again seized power by his popular support. Ashraf entered into negotiations with the Americans and British and rouse implementation of coup idea in them. She prepared preliminaries in London and some measures done by her agents in Tehran and some of her fellows such as Rashidian brothers provided the necessary provisions.
 
After the 19th, August of 1953 coup (28th, Mordad/1332) and Pahlavi restoration, Ashraf stayed in Europe by her brother’s request and received $ 5000 annuity per month, but after 8 months she returned Tehran and involved in the political affairs as well as before even more extensively. She was in charge of Royalty Service Organization and Iranian Women Organization as well as one of the most influential members in Pahlavi Royalty and meddled with all political, economic affairs as most political men in the country were trying hard in applying her commands.
 
Ashraf was much interested in collecting money and took part in drug smuggling cooperated with Mafia organizations. She involved in antique smuggling, town building, company establishing, factories and banks starting, as she was one of the richest women of the time. In the late years of Shah’s regime she was appointed as the chief the Iranian delegation in the UN and a few months before the regime downfall she left Iran to the United States and dwelt there.
 
In the letter to the prime minister she says,”
Dear Prime Minister [Djamshid Amuzegar]
Dear friend,
I’m leaving Tehran today, I want to say goodbye to you and also show my affection to you .You must have known the Swiss BBC demand from His Majesty which have been recourse you but you may not know it is concerned me personally and perhaps I shouldn’t say to you but as far as I get intimate terms with you and trust in your honesty, I wanted to remind you that your assistance in the advancement of the issue is important and please help it to be done tomorrow. That time I couldn’t talk to you conveniently but my daily life is hurly-burly, and saying this may lighten burden, therefore I request you not to refrain from doing that .Of course only you and I know this matter and because of that I insist you tear off the letter at once.
 
The other subject I forgot to say it to you is about my foundation which needs financial and spiritual support. After returning from journey I’ll talk about it extensively but what is urgent is supplying that much dollar for its international branch which is going to be established in Paris. For the time being as the financial situation of the foundation is bad I plea the government to pay for it and later as the foundation could stand on its own feet, it would be interrupted, I’d like health, success and bliss for you. If there would be anything that I could do it and help it mentally do not withhold, remind Please tear off the letter immediately.
Yours Faithfully,

Ashraf Pahlavi




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