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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  Mirza Hassan Khan Mostofialmamalek 

Soheila Einollahzadeh


The third son of Mirza Yussef Mostofialmamalek, Nasseraddin Shah’s grand vizier, Mirza Hassan Khan Mostofialmamalek Ashtiani was born in Tehran, 1875. The title of Mostofialamamlek, i.e. minister of finance has been in their family since a century ago. His education began at the age of five under tutelage of Mahmud Khan Malekalshoara. Further to the customary Arabic grammar and literature, he received some religious education. He knew French well. He regarded the religious rules and cultural customs. He was a nationalist. His generosity brought him the title of “agha” meaning master. He received the title of Mostofialmamlek about 1883. In 1885, subsequent to his father’s death, he undertook all his responsibilities under Mossaddeq’s father, Mirza Hedayatollah Vizier daftar’s supervision.


Following Mozzaffaraddin Shah’s succession, his position became weakened because of the influence of the Shah’s Azerbaijani entourage. Retiring himself from his office, he left for Europe. He spent the family wealth in epicurean life. He was much devoted in game hunting, checkmate and polygamy.His residing in Europe had great impact on his thoughts. After the establishment of constitutionality in Iran, he returned to the country under Atabak’s insistence and founded the “Humanity association”. He cooperated with Dr. Mossaddeq. He was the minister of war until the bombardment of Majlis. Following the conquest of Tehran, first he was appointed the minister of finance in Sepahdar Azam’s cabinet and then became the minister of Ahmad Shah’s court. Following to the resignation of Sepadar’s first cabinet, he became Ahmad Shah’s prime minister under the influence of the democrats. He was appointed prime minister six times, and each time, he retired himself due to some reasons. He became minister of war, majlis member and minister without portfolio. During his terms of premiership, some incidents including the assassination of Ayatollah Behbahani, Ali Mohammad Khan Tarbiat, Morteza Gholi Khan Sanioddowleh took place. During first world one and occupation of Iran’s territory by the Russian, British and Ottoman forces, and the threatening of the capital by the Russian forces he was prime minister of Iran.


The fifth term of Mostofialmamalek’s premiership in 1922 was faced with the formation of different factions in Majlis. His appointment received the acquiescence of the socialists. However a great minority led by Seyyed Hassan Modarres opposed to his appointment. He approved Qavamossaltaneh. Eventually, Modarres persuaded the majlis to put Mostofialmamalek into questioning. Mostofi had Russophile inclinations and the Russians supported him both in Tsarist and Soviet periods. However, he did not grant any concessions to them because of his feelings.

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