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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

 

Iranian Contemporary History No. 60

 

History Hall

 

 
  Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh 

Mozaffar Shahedi

       

Son of Amir Alam Khan II, Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh was replaced as the governor of the region between 1824-1829. According to the historical changes, his rule continued until about 1860. The ruling territory of Alam family was expanded during this period in contrast to their ascendants. The regions of Qaen and Birjand, Tun and Tabas were added to their territory. In this period, the developments in eastern Iran were much greater than other parts. So the role and position of Alam family became more and more important. The main question in this period is the violent attitudes of Iran’s southern and eastern neighbor, the great Britain. During 1824-1829, Iran was engaged in exhausting fights with her northern neighbor, Russia which ended in the loss of vast expanses of northern Iran. The British pursued Iran’s northern frontier developments carefully and added to her influence in the eastern regions of the country. Due to many preoccupations of Iran in the northern frontiers, the Qajar found no time to see into the affairs of the eastern Iran.

 

Almost simultaneous with the rule of Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh in Qaenat region, the Qajar and the Alam family found out about the British influence in the south and east of Iran. They found that establishment of relationship with the British, whether friendly or unfriendly would be unavoidable. They were sure that that the interests of the British in this part of the world is so great that they would pay any expense for it and they would victimize Iran to pursue their interests and realize their ambitions. So the Qajar found that they should adapt one of these two tactics. Both were applied. However, it was quite clear that unfriendly relations would not respond in Iran’s case.

 

In her final analysis, the British found that Iran would not be a reliable barrier against Russian expansion. So, in order to restrain Russia’s advancement towards south and India, the British thought of creating a buffer region. They decided to separate Afghanistan from Iran as far as possible. And wherever, the separation was impossible, they tried to attract the local authorities and dignitaries towards themselves. Time was needed to attract the Alam family towards the British.

 

Afghan territory was separated from Iran according to the imposed peace treaty of Paris by the British under Nasseraddin Shah. It was the last chain of Iran’s territories that was separated from Iran. Now that the Qajars got rid of their preoccupations in the northern frontiers, turned their attention towards the eastern provinces. They sent forces under Abbas Mirza to get back Herat. However, the untimely death of Abbas Mirza and then the death of Fathali Shah postponed the plans for the siege of Herat by Mohammad Mirza without any result. The roots for this lied in the lack of central power and strengthening of Herat rioters by the British.

 

Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh remained in Mohammad Mirza’s camp after the death of his father, Abbas Mirza. When Mohammad Mirza had to leave Herat, he entrusted the region to Kamran Mirza. Upon his return, he brought back the residents of Kusuyeh of Heart with himself and ordered Amir Assadollah Khan to led them into the country.

 

The endeavors of the central government to join Herat to Iran continued under Mohammad Shah. When Mohammad Shah himself participated in the battle to occupy the town, the gunmen and irregular cavalry of Birjand under Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh accompanied him. However, due to the intervention of the British, Mohammad Shah left Heart and returned to Tehran. Although Afghanistan was not separated from Iran formally, Mohammad Shah accepted not to interfere in the domestic affairs of Herat. During this time, Alam family were known in all eastern provinces of Iran and they helped the central government to keep peace and order in these areas.

 

Among important events of Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh’s rule in Khorassan was the rising of Mohammad Hassan Khan Salar, Allahyar Khan Assefoddowleh’s son. The exact date of Amir Assadollah Khan Hessamoddowleh’s death is not clear. However, it seems that he was alive in 1860. After that no mention of him is seen in the history books.

 

Apparently he held power from about 1824-1829 until 1863. During his time, the links with the governors of Herat and other regions of Afghanistan were kept, and the governors socialized with each other. It was in Assadollah Khan’s time that the British policy to separate Afghanistan from Iran was realized. In fact since the Paris treaty in 1856, the Qajars found out that they had no choice except that of surrendering to the British and the confrontation of the two empires about the conquest of Heart during Nasseraddin Shah’s reign was the last military operation between the two countries that led to the occupation of some southern regions of Iran.




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