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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  GholamAli Oveissi 

Vida Moezzinia


Son of Gholamreza, Gholamali Oveissi was born in Qom. His father was a farmer and small landowner. Following his elementary education, he entered the military school of Tehran, 1930. In 1936, he received his diploma and two years later, he entered army as second lieutenant. In officers’ college he was the crown prince, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s classmate. This acquaintance and friendship led to promotion of many of the college students including: Qarabaghi, Fardust, Oveissi, Jam and Minbashian. From 1938 to 1952, he was the commandant of company, battalion, and division sergeancy college, and regiment 52 of military police. When he was promoted colonel, he followed the courses of Tehran Jang university and commandant headquarters in the United States with merits and became the commander of brigade.


Four years later, in 1957, he became brigadier, though it should have taken seven years. He became the head of guard army headquarters. One year later, he was appointed commandant of guard army headquarters. He received the ranks of major general and lieutenant general in this office. He was appointed commandant of the country gendarmerie in September 1965. During seven years in this office, he carried out many changes in this organization including separation of recruitment office and frontier guarding office from army and formation of a new organization called Road Guard under gendarmerie. His term of commanding gendarmerie coincided with frontier clashes between Iranian frontier guards and Iraqi military men, and also the Siahkal rising.


He was promoted to four star general in 1969, and became one of the influential men of the armed forces. Three years later, he became the commandant of ground forces and held the office until January 1978. Upon the rise of Islamic revolution and announcement of martial law in Tehran and eleven other cities by Sharif Emami’s cabinet, he became the military governor of Tehran.


As the military governor of Tehran, his actions led to the martyrdom of many people in 7th Sept. 1978 on the black Friday. Subsequent to the removal of Sharif Emami, Oveissi decided to form a military government. But it was decided to appoint major general Azhari at the head of the cabinet. Further to his military responsibilities, Oveissi became acting head of ministry of labor. However, it did not last long. Following to the fall of major general Azhari’s cabinet, Oveissi left Iran on the excuse of needing medical treatment.


Subsequent to the success of Iran’s Islamic revolution, United States faced the dangers threatening its interests in Iran. So some plots were hatched by the United States to overthrow the newly established system. Iraq’s military invasion of Iran and Nozheh coup were among these plots to strengthen the opponents of Islamic revolution. Gholamali Oveissi was one of the high ranking officers of the previous regime who backed by western intelligence services started some terroristic activities against Iran in Turkey and Iraq. The leader of the military branch of Nozheh coup was the retired lieutenant colonel of gendarmerie, MohammadBagher Ameri, a close friend of Oveissi.


On the eve of the coup, Oveissi added to his friendship with the countries which wished for the change of political regime in Iran. He met Anwar Sadat, and Saddam Hossein, the presidents of Egypt and Iraq, and also William Hague, United States secretary of state.


The New York analyst, Richard Bert quoted general Oveissi in 18th June 1980, “An explosion is close to happen. There is no doubt that Iran’s regime is spending its last days”. Iran’s Free Radio was general Oveissi’s loudspeaker in Iraq’s ground to make propaganda against Iranian nation and encourage the opponents and instigate the coup agents. His collaboration in Nozheh coup of 1979 was the last of his military actions. He was murdered in Paris, 6th Feb. 1983.

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