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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  Mozaffar Alam 

Nilufar Kasra


The fifth son of Motamedovezareh, entitled as Salar Mozaffar and Sardar Entesar, Mozaffar Alam was born in Caucasus, 1882. He received his elementary and secondary education in Turkey and then followed it in Saint Sier military school of France in artillery field. He continued his training in infantry. Before his return to Iran, he became a member of commission for delimiting Iran o Ottoman frontiers. Upon his return to Iran, he was engaged in the ministry of foreign affairs, and was appointed Iranian consul in Damascus. However, he decided to follow his interests. So he resigned from his appointment and was employed in the military. Upon the conquest of Tehran, he became the commandant of gendarmerie cavalry.  He was in charge of filling cannons with shrapnel balls and guarding roads. Shortly after, he became the deputy and then the chief of police because of his competence, and also some reforms he carried out in the internal affairs of police office and formulating its budget.


He created a sort of hierarchy in the police system which became the basis of the future hierarchies. His bravery and competence in the police office made him receive the title of Salar Mozaffar and he was appointed as the head of Cossack brigade.


He was appointed as the commandant of Azerbaijan troops by then the prime minister, Vossouqoddowleh to Suppress Esmail Khan Simitqu’s riot. He succeeded to suppress Simitqu. He enjoyed the support of Khiabani and his company to become the chief of Azerbaijan police. However, after a while he was arrested and sent to Tehran on the accusation of intrigue against Khiabani.


When Qavamossaltaneh became the minister of war, he was promoted colonel and became the commandant of Khorassan troops. He succeeded to restore relative security to the region. In recognition of his services in Khorassan, he received the title of Sardar Entessar and was promoted brigadier general. Subsequent to 1921 coup, he became the governor of Esfahan.


In 1923, he discovered a plot against Sardar Sepah. Apparently, the intriguers intended to kill him. Some figures including Qavamossaltaneh and Mozaffar Khan Alam were arrested in this regard. Qavam’s wife sought the support of the prime minister, Moshiroddowleh and Ahmad Shah and demanded for the release and travel permit for her husband. When Sardar Entesar gave testimony against Qavam, he was forgiven and released from prison and appointed as the governor of Kurdestan.


During his period of governorship in Kurdestan, he carried out many reforms. So, he took the government of Persian Gulf ports (1927), government of Lorestan and Borujerd (1929), and later the government of Fars and Azerbaijan (1930).


He came to Tehran in 1932 and entered the cabinet in 1934, and became the head of general department of trade. He made a journey at the head of a commission to the Soviet Union to develop the commercial transactions between the two countries. He became Iranian minister to Baghdad, 1936.


After one and half a year, he returned to Iran and became minister of foreign affairs in 1938. In the next governments of Ahmad Matin Daftari and Ali Mansur, he had the same position. Again, he was appointed governor of Azerbaijan in 1950, and participated in frontier commissions with the Soviet Union, and negotiated about the reclamation of Iranian gold which were taken to Russia at the time of Mohammad Ali Shah. He was appointed leader of Mecca pilgrims, and Iranian minister to Saudi Arabia. He became Iranian minister to Iraq in the year after.


During 1953 coup, and the escape of Mohammad Reza Shah from Iran, he was still Iranian’s minister to Iraq. Despite Nuri Said Pasha’s wish, he was ordered by Dr. Fatemi, then the minister of foreign affairs no to welcome the Shah. Therefore, after the coup and the return of the Shah, he quarreled with Nuri Said Pasha and left Iran for Syria.


For a time, he lived in Syria and then left for France and stayed in Paris. He asked for forgiveness and permission to return to Iran. Eventually, he returned to Iran in 1972. However, he died after a few months after his return.


He died at the age of 90. He had four sons, Sattar, Hamid, Vahid, and Farid. Sattar and Farid studied medicine in Switzerland, and Vahid and Hamid turned to business.

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