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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

 

Iranian Contemporary History No. 60

 

History Hall

 

 
  Sardar Fakher Hekmat 
Nilufar Kasra
 
Son of Hajj Hessamaddin Shirazi, Reza Hekmat entitled Sardar Fakher was born in Tehran, 1890. He received his elementary education in Tehran Elmieh School under Mokhberossaltaneh. Then he went to Shiraz and learned Persian and Arabic literature from Hakim Elahi. He was taught French by Proxy’s son, late Henry Khan. In early years of constitutionality, he went to Europe. However, he received no special education. Subsequent to the minor despotism, he returned to Iran and entered the political scene. He had a great share in the formation of Shiraz democratic party and became its leader.
 
During the First World War, Sardar Hekmat fought against the alien forces and their agents. Due to his sacrifices in struggle against the British, he was entitled Fakherossaltaneh by the governor of Shiraz, Mokhberossaltaneh. However, after a short time, Mokhberossaltaneh was recalled to Tehran and Farmanfarma was appointed as the governor of Shiraz. Sardar Fakher left Shiraz for his properties in Komaraj of Bushire. But, AbdolHossein Mirza Farmanfama, backing the British policies, confiscates Fakherossaltaneh’s summer house. Sardar did not give up and formed a troop of his own to fight against the forces of the governor. He succeeded to recover his lands. However, he leaves the region for Tehran because of the troubles caused by the southern police and the British.
 
Due to his strong opposition against Vossouqoddowleh’s 1919 agreement, he was exiled from Tehran. He entered the fourth and fifth terms of majlis from Abadeh. He supported the fall of Qajar rule and rise of the Pahlavis. Due to this reason, again entered the seventh and eighth terms of majlis through his brother’s help, who was one of Reza Shah’s close friends.
 
At the end of his term of majlis, he was appointed to the government of Yazd and then received the rule of Astarabad. In 1935, he was removed from his office and was retired to home until 1940 when he became the governor of Kerman. One year after Reza Shah’s fall, he came to Tehran and became the director general of general register and statistic office.
 
Sardar Fakher became a member of 14th majlis from Shiraz and was one of the 40 deputies who formed minority of majlis. he founded a socialist party with the cooperation of Mohammad Sadeq Tabatabai and Sahamossoltan Bayat. In 1946, he became a friend of Qavamossaltaneh and continued his activity in the democratic party. He was one of the pillars of the party. In the same year, he became the governor of Kerman and Baluchestan and contributed to pacify the riots of Fars tribes.He returned to Tehran, 1947 and became the speaker of majlis in its 15th term. Though he had friendship with Qavamossaltaneh, he met the Shah a few times during the 15th majlis and decided to change his attitude because of his survival. So, he joins the party in majlis which was against Qavam and through subterfuge prepared the ground for his downfall. Then he persuades the Shah that majlis members have great trust in him. So the Shah appoints him as prime minister. For a while he was both the speaker of majlis and prime minister, but he follows the advices of his friends and leaves premiership. Again he entered the 16th majlis and became its speaker. In this period, he had disputes with Mossaddeq and retires himself to home.
 
Following 19th Aug. 1953, again he became the speaker of majlis and kept this position until the 20th term. However, the majlis was closed during Ali Amini’s premiership. Sardar Fakher Hekmat did not return to Iran’s political scene after Ali Amini. He lived on his pension until age of 80. In his late years was afflicted with amnesia. He would walk aimlessly in the street and talk to himself.  



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