The recognized civilization of Mesopotamia goes back to some thousand years before Christianity. Upon the arrival of Islam into Iraq, Imam Ali made Koufe the seat of his caliphate. At the time of Omayyad’s too, Iraq was under their reign. At the time of Abbasside’s, Baghdad was chosen as the seat of Abbasside Caliphate.
The Mongol third wave led by Hulako put an end to 525 years of Abbasside caliphate in 1258. Iraq suffered a great share of ruin and plunder by Teymure, the lame’s great invasion to the newly founded Ottoman empire. Subsequent to the establishment of the Ottoman empire, a great part of Iraq was under the dominance of the Ottomans.
Since the second part of the 18th century, the British began to establish commercial and political agencies in Iraq to study the sociopolitical situation and the features of its tribal relationships. According to Sykes -Picot agreement of May 16th 1916, the Ottoman empire was divided between the British and the French. Accordingly, the British forces proceeded to Iraq in 1917. Paris peace conference took no heed of Iraq question and according to the suggestions of Saint Remo conference, the league of nations ratified Sykes-Picot agreement. Thus, Iraq turned to a protectorate of the British empire.
Later on the Iraqi nation led by Seyyed Mohammad Sadr, a great Shiite clergy revolted against the dominance of the British. The British suppressed the uprising ruthlessly. They exiled Ayatollah Sadr and through an artificial referendum, they brought Feissal into power.
"The abstract of the articles presented in this conference edited in persian language and is available in WORD and PDF formats as follows"