The Russians had a very weak position in the regional scene until the Safavids. However, upon the rise of the Romanov family, they solved many of their domestic problems and they thought of territorial expansion under the Peter the Great. Following the fall of the Safavids, they occupied parts of the north and north western Iran. However, the heavy loss incurred upon the Ottomans by Nader Shah led the Russians to evacuate Iran’s territory according to Ganjeh and Rasht treaties, and once again Nader succeeded to restore Iran’s political frontiers. During all his twelve years of reign, he was in war with the north, south, west and east incessantly. He was very well skilled in his military campaigns, but the wars of attrition paralyzed the country’s economy.
Upon the murder of Nader, the weak Zand dynasty, even at the time of Karim Khan could not afford to keep Nader Shah’s frontiers. And the claimers of throne in all parts of the country put great pressure on the Zands. So during fifty years after Nader’s murder, the decline in the economy and welfare of the nation became simultaneous with the gradual development of the Russians.
When after all domestic quarrels, Catherin the great took the power in her hands, the Russians found an opportunity to follow their territorial expansion policy and act upon Peter the Great’s will. Though, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar gave a bloody reply to Heraclius’s movement towards Russia, if Catherin did not die at the same time as Agha Mohammad Khan, the Russ o Iran wars over Georgia might begun in those days. However, the new emperor, Paul, despite his mother’s policies withdrew 60000 soldiers under Valerian Zobuv from Caucasus.
"The abstract of the articles presented in this conference edited in persian language and is available in WORD and PDF formats as follows"