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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall



Mehdi Jangravi


Palkonic (colonel) Liakhov, the Russian army officer was sent to Iran by the Russian court as the commander of central Cossack brigade under Mohammad Ali Shah. He did not feel himself responsible to Iranian authorities, even to the minister of war, and received his orders from St. Petersburgh. He became the military governor of Tehran in June 22, 1908. He bombarded the Majlis by Shah's orders, and a Russian subject at the court, Sergei Shabshal, and M. de Hartwigs' recommendation, in June 23, 1908. This event led to the death of many majlis members. Some were dispersed. The Cossack forces entered the majlis and ruined its building. Mohammad Ali Shah expressed his appreciation to Liakhov for his efforts.


Liakhov was at Mohammad Ali Shah's service until July 19, 1909, but subsequent to occupation of Tehran by Mojahedan, he surrendered himself, and was protected by Ali-Qolikhan Sardar Assad and Mohammad Vali Khan SepahSalar Tonokaboni, the triumphant constitutionalists and was put under Yousef khan Amir Mojahed's control, to make sure he would come to no harm on the Constitutionalist's side. He resigned from his office and returned to St. Petersburg in 1909. Following 1917 Russian Revolution, he joined General Nikin and subsequent to Tsar's fall, he fled to Batoum and was murdered by three Georgians.

Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar among some princes and civil authorities

Mohammad Ali Shah and some courtiers and princes during their residence in Baghe Shah, some days before bombardment of Majlis 1. Mostafa Hajeb-ol-doleh 2. Mohammad Ali Ala-ol-saltaneh 3. Mohammad Ali Sardar Afkhami 4. Hossein Pasha Amir Bahador Jang 5. Kiakhov (Palkonic) 6. Ahmad Mirza Qajar (crown prince) 7. Hosseinqoli Mirza Nosrat-ol-saltaneh 8. Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar 9. Prince Mashdi (son of Kamran Mirza) 10. Ahmad Moshir-ol-saltaneh 11. Ali Movaseq-ol-molk 12. Nasser-ol-doleh Diba 13. Mahdiqoli Majd-ol-doleh 14. Mahmoud Ala-ol-molk 15. Mohammadvali Asef-ol-saltaneh

Colonel Liakhov, Commander in chief of Cossack forcess in company with the Russian minister and his wife 1. Hartwig (Russian minister in Iran) 2. Hartwig's wife 3. Liakhov

The workers restoring the Majlis building following to its bombardment by Liakhov during Constitutional movement

Majlis building after the bombardment by Liakhov during Constitutional movement

Palkonic Liakhov, the commander of central Cossack brigade accompanied by some Russian subjects and their wives at a reception in Moayar-rol-mamalek's Mehrabad Garden 1. Liakhov (Palkonic)

Mohammad Hassan Mirza (crown prince) amongst Liakhov and some Cossack officers of Tehran 1. Mohammad Hassan Mirza (crown prince) 2. Liakhov Palkonic

Mohammad Hassan Mirza (crown prince) accompanied by Liakhov and some civil and Cossack authorities during their residence in Baghe Shah in Constitutional period 1. Ali Arshad-ol-doleh 2. Liakhov (Palkonic) 3. Mohammad Hassan Mirza (the crown prince) 4. Hossein Pasha Amir Bahador Jang 5. Abd-ol-majid Mirza Firouz 6. Mohammadvali Asef-ol-saltaneh 7. Firouz Mirza Firouz 8. Khosro Sardar Zafar

A Corner of the ruined building of Majlis after the bombardment in the current of Constitutional movement

The Portal of Majlis [the National Consultative Assembly]

Negotiation Hall of Majlis

The workers making repair work after the bombardment of Majlis

The exit of a Majlis member in its early terms from the old door

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