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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  From Maktab Khane to School
Rozzita Miri
Maktab Khane (old-fashion primary school) was the first knowledge learning place. Its history backs to the beginning of the Islamic era to the end of the Qajar reign. Maktab Khane (Primary Schools) In Qajar era, divided into three categories: Akhund Baji schools, Public schools and Private schools. Akhund Bashi schools was managed by a wise woman, and children between 4 to 7 years learned Quran small chapters with Alphabet and also they read other books which was different based on time, space, schools and students. Books were not selected by the specific rule. The content of the books was not matched to the child talent. These schools were optional.
The public Schools were established in most cities and villages and many middle class students studied there. It was not necessary who entered to these schools, certainly passed the Akhund Bashi schools.
The third categories are the private schools. The rich people sent children there and some of them used tutors to teach their children at home. Maktab Khane may be established in anywhere such as house, mosque and shop which was not appropriate. The floor covered by mat, wad and old carpet and everybody had to bring mattress with own self. Students laid the mattress around the room and sat on them. There were no bench as well as black board and chalk, and instead of these tools, they used tablet, Rahl and other things. Teacher, Mullah and Akhund sat on top of the room and there was a box in front of him. He/ she punished students by two long and short sticks and sometimes took a hookah. Children disgusted to go to school, because of physical punishment such as bastinado and imprisoning in a dark and moist chamber, which was called dungeon. Gradually, Maktab Khane was converted to school and important schools were established like Dar-al Fanon. Although there were the corporal punishments in the schools, children continued their studying and some of them converted to the significant scientists and important persons.

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Maktab khane in Qajar Era

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One of the Tehran Maktab khane (old-fashion school) in 1914

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The student's punishment by Bastinado at the end of Qajar Era

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The Adab authorities, teachers and students school of Tehran

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The fašade of Dar ul-Funun at the early Pahlavi reign

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The Dar ul-Funun Senior Students with Mir Seyyed Ali Kimiagar, The physics teacher, in 1925

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Sharaf senior students in Tehran

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] Students and teachers of Tehran Syrus school in 1922

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Students and teachers of Tehran Elmiye school, the First Floor, in Qajar era

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Different levels' Students and teachers in Rahmiye Sa'adat School in Tehran

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The exam's session in a Tehran high school

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Fath- Allah Pakravan, the treasury head, when he distributed the national papers among school girls

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A classroom in the Reza shah government

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Several students in Roshdiyeh School in Mozaferi era

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