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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  Morgan Shuster
Zahra Abassi
In May 1911, Morgan Shuster came to Iran as a head of financial board and appointed to the treasury department president. At the early of June 1911, he reformed and adjusted Iran finances and also signed contacts in this regard.
In June 27, 1921, Mohammad Ali Shah, who lived under the Russian governments with Iran government pension, with his brother were entered in Iran territory from Gomesh Hills and then decided to seize Iran Throne by the help of Russian government. His other brother, Salar al Doleh, came to Iran from Kermanshah and decided to overthrow the Iran constitutional regime by the help of the west nomads.
Akhund Mohammad Kazim Khorasani issued a declaration and condemned it by uniting people and Muslims.
In June 27, 1921, the Legislative Assembly approved a law that anyone who arrest or execute Mohammad Ali Mirza, 100000 Tuman and everybody who find Salar –al Doleh or Shoa – O Saltaneh, 25000 Tuman will be awarded to him. In the war result, Mohammad Ali Mirza and his two brothers failed and left Iran. According to the decree was issued in September 12, 1921, Iran government ordered Shuster to seize the Shoa-O Saltaneh properties but Russia government opposed to it. The Russia government disagreed with Shuster and threatened Iran government to do not do anything without according with Russian and English government. In November 1921, Russia sent a written ultimatum letter to Iran and asked the government to drive out Shuster from the country and they has no right to hire foreign counselor without their permission as well as Iran must pay the expense of 4000 Kazak who entered to the country. If Iran government fails to response them, the Russian army will attack to the center. Two days later, in the last time of the expiration ultimatum, the Legislative Assembly rejected Russian demand and its army entered to Mashhad, Qazvin and Mazandaran.  
The Legislative Assembly continued to opposition and people boycotted the buying of the Russian and English goods. They went to embassies and protested against Russian government injustice.
Students shouted in streets." Freedom or death" and asked authorities to keep country. But Naser al- Mulk, who was regent of the kingdom, conceded powers to the commission which accepted the Russian terms and deposed Shuster.

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