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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

 

Iranian Contemporary History No. 60

 

History Hall

 

 
  Ayatollah Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri

Rozita Miri

 

Hajj Sheikh Fazlollah Kojuri known as Nouri, one of the great religious authorities (mojtaheds) and scholars at the threshold of constitutionalism was born in 1843. His father was Molla Abbas Mazandarani Kujuri known as liturgist. After his preliminary education and Sath (a level in religious studies), Sheikh Fazlollah headed to Iraq to learn the Islamic sciences in the classes of great scholars such as Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi and Ayatollah Habibollah Rashti. After his return to Iran, he acquired great influence and authority. Even his political opponents did not deny his scientific qualifications, and considered him superior to others. In addition to his great knowledge of religious matters, he enjoyed macro-depth understanding of the political benefits and political and social activities had the frequency, including tobacco, in the process of tobacco sanction, he stood by Mirza Hassan Ashtiani, and was one of the leaders of this movement. 


On the rise of constitutionality and the justice seeking movement, he cooperated with. Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammd Tabatabi, and Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Behbahani. But after a while, as he saw the constitutionality against the religious rules, he demanded for religious constitutional government. The confrontation between the constitutionalists and Sheikh Fazlollah and his  fans began so that the plot for the assassination of Sheikh was planned, and he was assassinated by Karim Davatgar in 9 Jan. 1909. Sheikh Fazlollah was shot by Karim Dvatgr on his foot, and the assailant shot himself on throat at the time of arrest, and he was injured. However, after spent he some time in prison, Sheikh forgave his assailant.


In these days the war between constitutionalists and autocrats ended by the conquest of Tehran by Guilan Mujahideen and Bakhtiari forces. Mohammad Ali Shah was ousted from throne, and the crown prince Ahmadmirza ascended the throne. Then Sheikh Fazlollah was suggested in order to save his life take refuge in the Russian embassy, but he refused to take resort to foreign powers, and preferred to give his life.


Some of his opponents went to his home to arrest Sheikh, and took him to the TupkhanehSquare. In a revolutionary court of which Sheikh Ibrahim Zanjani was a prosecutor, he was sentenced to death and the Armenian police chief, Yeprem Khan was in charge to implement the ruling and the Sheikh was hanged.


The late Sheikh Fazlollah was a great scholar who owned many works including Tazkaratalqafelin and Ershadaljahel, Sahifieh Mahdavieh. He wrote poetry too. He had written many long poems in the praise of Imams, and the holy prophet’s household. His writings are available in his own handwriting.



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Ayatollah Sheikh Fazlollah Noori and Ayatollah Seyyed Abdollah Behbahani

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1. Hajj Mirza Ali Akbar Mojtahed Boroujerdi 2. Hajj Mirza Abu'lQassem, Tehran Friday prayer leader 3. Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabai 4. Sheikh Fazlollah Noori


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Gathering of Large group of people near Sheikh Fazollah and Seyyed Ali Agha Yazdi’s tent in Tupkhaneh square in support of "legitimate constitutionality"

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Ayatollah Sheikh Fazlollah Noori in his personal library

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Tehran police chief the Armenian Yeprem Khan


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Sheikh Ibrahim Zanjani

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Execution of Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri in Tupkhaneh square

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Ayatollah Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri

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