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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

 

Iranian Contemporary History No. 60

 

History Hall

 

 
  The Conquest of Tehran

Rozita Miri

 

Following the national protest and leadership of distinguished clergy of Tehran, and support of the clergy of holy cities and other Iranian cities like Isfahan and Tabriz in 1906; Mozaffaraddin Shah to conceded to issue the Constitutional decree and in the command makes it clear that nation's role in the handling of the state's affair, and the end of the tyrannical monarchy and establishment of the National Consultative Assembly and Justice house should be stipulated.

 

However, after the victory of the Iranian constitutionalists, and their taking radical decisions in the local forums, especially in Tabriz provincial society, and by people like Hassan Taghizadeh who paved the path for the sit in of the Iranian constitutionalists in the British Embassy, the confrontation with the administration arose to a high level. In fact, this radicalism, which was mostly intended for promotion of their social status instead of seeking justice, incurred the objection of spiritual leaders.

Gradually, intensification of the conflicts and the constitutionalists' diversion from the original route, led to unpleasant events which prevented the realization of constitutionalism in the country. Some of the armed groups and riflemen of Bakhtiari, Guilan and Azerbaijan led by Aligholi Sardarasd Bakhtiari, Mohammad Vali Khan Tonokaboni (Sepahdar Azam), Sattar Khan, and Bagher Khan after fights against Mohammd Ali Shah's forces, defeated them and seizing Qazvin and Qom proceeded to conquest Tehran.

When Mohammad Ali Shah found out that Tehran is in the hands of constitutional nationalists took refuge in the Russian embassy with his family. The chiefs of movement gathered in  Baharestan, 15th July 1909 to decide on issues of immediate importance, and established a house, called " High Extraordinary Assembly " in which the members ousted MohammadAli Shah from throne and appointed his son, Ahmadmirza Qajar as monarch unanimously. As Ahmadmirza was no more than twelve years, AliReza Khan Ilkhani Qajar entitled Azadolmolk was appointed as his regent, and from among the nationalists, Aliqoli Sardar Assad Bakhtiari as the minister of Interior and Sepahdar Tonekaboni for the War Department were determined.



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Hussein Pasha Amirbahador War

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Aligholi Sardar Assad Bakhtiari

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Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni (Sepahdar Azam)


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Mohammd Vali Khan Tonokaboni, governor of Azerbaijan and several governmental agents 1. AhmadAli Bani Adam, 2. Ebrihim Mo'tamedossaltaneh, 3. Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni, 4. Ali Movassaqolmok

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Aligholi Khan Sardar Assad Bakhtiari and Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni (Sepahdar Azam) with a group of Iranian constitutionalists

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Jafarqoli Sardar Bahador (Sardarasd Bakhtiari) with Bakhtiari riflemen


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Jafarqoli Sardarasad Bakhtiari, and Mohammad Mirza Shamsolmolk

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AbdolHossein Moezzossoltan (Sardar Mohi) the commandant of Guilan combatants

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Ali Arshadodowleh, the commander of Mohammad Ali Shah's forces in war with the constitutionalists, a few moments before shooting


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Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni (Sepahdar Azam) in Russian Embassy party in Tehran

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A group of combatants, and their leaders and notables, after the conquest of Tehran

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AliReza khan Azadolmolk Nayebalsaltaneh with a group of dignitaries and government officials on the right: Mohammad Vali Sepahdar Azam, AbdolMajid Mirza Einoddowleh, AliReza Azadolmolk, AbdolHossein Mirza Farmanfarma, Hassan Mostofialmamalek, and Aliqoli Sardar Assad Bakhtiari


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AliReza khan Azadolmolk Nayebalsaltaneh with a group of dignitaries and government officials on the right: Mohammad Vali Sepahdar Azam, AbdolMajid Mirza Einoddowleh, AliReza Azadolmolk, AbdolHossein Mirza Farmanfarma, Hassan Mostofialmamalek, and Aliqoli Sardar Assad Bakhtiari

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Aligholi Sardar Assad Bakhtiari

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