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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  The Invasion of Ottoman Forces to Iran

Zahra Abbassi


Following a series of battles between the Ottoman and Iranian forces, and the defeat of the Turks, the border disputes between the two countries were settled through Arzanatorrum treaty, which was concluded in 1824.


In 1904, subsequent to the change of autocratic regime to constitutional, and the resulting unrests, the Ottoman Empire took the opportunity and encroached upon some border regions and occupied Mahabad.


Due to the protests made by the Russia and the British, the Turks had to evacuate the region. However, during two critical years of Mohammad Ali Shah’s reign, the Ottoman troops commanded by Esmail Khan Simiqu again invaded Iranian borders and occupied Savojbulaq for the second time. Again the British and the Russians intervened and pushed them back and encouraged both countries to form a similar border commission.


There were some representatives appointed by the British and the Russians to this commission to settle the disputes. The commission began its work in 1913, and was successful in the settlement of disagreements.

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