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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  August 19th, 1953 Coup

Ibrahim Hadidi


From the very beginning of the Mossadeq’s taking the power in his hands and nationalization of oil industry, the thoughts to launch a coup and military intervention in Iran were played by some of British circles. However, the solidarity and cohesion of the pro nationalization groups and the early opposition of the US government to this project, delayed the realization of it.


Through setting off their espionage network and seeping into the national and religious organizations by the British, and the Eisenhower’s being elected as the US president, and fearing the expansion of the Soviet influence, the schemes were planned to carry out a military coup by CIA in Iran.


The coup plan was named T.P. Ajax and Kermit Roosevelt left for Iran to handle the affairs; the British called it the Boot operations and sent Christopher Woodhouse to carry out their plans. The secret network of Shahpur Reporter and Assadollah Alam and the Rashidian Brothers supported by the British Rochild family were engaged in a series of activities called Bedaman. Their main task was to create a state of disorder, unrest and plunder. Various demonstrations held by the Tudeh Party, appointment of major general Zahedi as the minister of interior, dubious presence of Shams Qanatabadi in Ayatollah Kashani’s residence, the murder of Afshartus, and many other events set the scene for Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, enjoying the support of the US and the British governments, to depose the prime minister, Mossaddeq, and Colonel Nassiri had the mission to deliver the firman to Mossadeq, but he was arrested by colonel Momtaz and the coup was foiled; the Shah made his escape  from Iran accompanied by Sorayya Isfandiari, Mohammad Khatami (as pilot) and Aboulfath Atabay to Iraq and then to Italy. Again, in the 19th of August those involved in the coup project took advantage of the inactivity and confusion of the government (despite its having been informed of the coup through a letter sent to him by Ayatollah Kashani), and the armed forces accompanied by the hooligans and rascals poured into the Tehran streets and brought Mossaddeq’s cabinet into end in the afternoon of the very day. The prime minister surrendered with some of his cabinet members, and major general Zahedi became the minister of coup and three days later Mohammad Reza Pahlavi returned to his throne.

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Demonstrations held by various labour syndicates, before the coup

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Demonstrations held by the Tudeh party in Tupkhaneh Square, August, 1953

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Demonstrations held by various groups in support of Mossaddeq

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Installation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s picture instead of the toppled statue of Reza Shah Pahlavi, by the pro coup people in the Tupkhaneh square of Tehran

Tehran in the day of the coup

Club-wielders in the day of coup

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Tehran in the coup of 19th August 1953

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The attack of Sha’ban Ja’fari and pro coup people to house no. 109, the prime minister’s residence in the Kakh street, 1. Sha’ban Ja’fari

Fazlollah Zahedi and the military commandants welcoming the Shah on his return to Iran after the coup: 1. Nematollah Nassiri, 2. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 3. Fazllolah Zahedi, 4. Hedayatollah Guilanshah

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Sha’ban Ja’ari, one of the main agents of the coup: 1. Yahya Yussefi, 2. Sha’ban Ja’fari

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Fazllolah Zahedi, the coup minister in his office: 1. Fazllolah Zahedi, 2. Parviz YarAfshar

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1. Mohsen Mobser, 2. Teymur Bakhtiar, a member of court of first instance dealing with Mossaddeq’s case, and Tehran military governor

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Military governor of Tehran, Farhad Dadsetan

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An audience of some officers participating in the coup with Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, August 23rd 1953: 1. Mehdi Rahimi, 2. Assadollah Kavussi, 3. Khalil Sayyadian, 4. Hushang Mowlavi, 5. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s first press conference after the coup

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Fazllolah Zahedi after the 19th August coup: 1. Soleiman Behbudi, 2. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 3. Fazllolah Zahedi

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Fazllolah Zahedi (prime minister) and some of his colleagues in the 19th August coup: 1. Hedayatollah Guilanshah, 2. Nader Batmanqelich, 3. Fazllolah Zahedi, 4. Abbas Farzanegan, 5. Ardeshir Zahedi, 6. Rahim Hirad, 7. Abolfath Atabay, 8. Mostafa Moqaddam, 9. Soleiman Behbudi, 10. AliAkbar Sha’ri, 11. Jahanguir Bozorgmehr, 12. Nematollah Nassiri, 13. Mohammad Khatami

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Mahmud Afshartus and his family: 1. Mahmud Afshartus, 2. Farzin Afshartus, 3. Behshid Afshartus, 4. Farshid Afshartus, 5. His wife

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Lieutenant general Fazllolah Zahedi (the prime minister) and some of the coup agents in and official ceremony: 1. Amirqoli Zarghahm, 2. Ardeshir Zahedi, 3. Hedayatollah Guilanshah, 4. Fazllolah Zahedi, 5. Mohammad Hossein Jahanbani, 6. Amir Mottaqqi, 7. Manuchehr Khosrowdad

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Mohammad Mossaddeq’s trial in the military court: 1. Mohammad Mossaddeq, 2. Jalil Bozorgmehr, 3. AliMohammad Rowhani

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Fazllolah Zahedi (the prime minister) and some of the military commandants in the first anniversary of the coup in Mokhberoddowleh square in Tehran: 1. Teimur Bakhtiar, 2. Aliqoli Golpira, 3. Mahdiqoli Alavi Moqaddam, 4. Fazllolah Zahedi, 5. Ardeshir Zahedi, 6. Abdollah Hedayat

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s photo dedicated by himself to Nematollah Nassiri on the occasion of the first anniversary of the coup

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Richard Nixon’s deputy in a press conference in Tehran, Dec. 9th 1953: 1. Shapur Ji (Reporter), 2. Nematollah Nassiri, 3. Richard Nixon, 4. Ibrahim Modarressi, 5. Mahdiqoli Alavi Moqaddam

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Ashraf Pahlavi, Assaddollah Rashidian and Mahdiqoli Alavi Moqaddam, main coup agents: 1. Ashraf Pahlavi, 2. Assadollah Rashidian, 3. Mahdiqoli Alavi Moqaddam

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Soldiers and club-wielders in the coup of 19th August in Tehran

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