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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  The Senate

Rozita Miri


By virtue of the constitutional law dated 1906, further to national consultative assembly, there must be founded a Senate in Iran. However due to some oppositions, it was not formed until the end of the Reza Shah's rule. Following the occupation of Iran by the allied powers in 1941, Reza Shah's exile and weakening of the Pahlavi rule, there appeared some articles in the papers demanding the formation of Senate from the then government. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was also willing to form this assembly. Eventually Hakimi's government prepared the bill for the formation of Senate and presented it to the Majlis. Despite the opposition of some majlis members, the bill was ratified and by the majlis and the Shah. Accordingly the members were to be sixty, thirty to be elected by the Majlis and thirty to be appointed by the Shah known as elected and appointed senators respectively. To enter the Senate the members hold special conditions: they were mainly chosen among the prime ministers, ministers, deputy ministers, governors, army commanders, university professors, and judges with an experience of at least 15 to 20 years, and majlis members of three  periods.


The Senate had seven periods of legislation. The first period was approximately simultaneous with the sixteenth term of Majlis. It was inaugurated in 20 bahman 1949. It was closed during the struggles for the nationalization of oil industry in 1952, and was reopened after the 19th August coup of 1953.


The presidents of the Senate were Ebrahim Hakimi, Hassan Taqizadeh, Mohsen Sadr, Jafar Sharif Emami, and Mohammad Sajjadi, three of them had been prime ministers (Hakimi, Sadr, and Sharif Emami). The longest period of presidency was that of Sharif Emami.


At the early years of its foundation, there was no special place for the Senate and the members were gathered in the Majlis. After its reopening in 1953, the members thought for a specific place for the Senate. Through much pressure of the members, the Shah agreed to the purchase of AliReza Pahlavi's palace. Since 1954 the Senate sessions were held in this palace. However there was not enough room for the various offices, library and the other services, so it was decided to erect a new building near to the palace which was used for the Senate gatherings up to 1979.  

AliReza Pahlavi Palace, the first place of the Senate

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The new Senate building

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The new Senate building

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One of the formal sessions of the Senate commission in its first period: 1. Ebrahim Khajehnouri, 2. Hassan Taghizadeh, 3. AboulQassem Najm, 4. HassanAli Kamal Hedayat, 5. Saeed Malek, 6. Mahdi Farraokh, 7. Ali Moayyed Sabeti, 8. Mohammad Hassan Foruzanfar

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Hassan Taghizadeh and some members of the first Senate at the Marmar palace, from right: Mohammad Mehdi Namazi, AboulQassem Najm, Hassan Taghizadeh, and AbdolHossein Nikpur

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Hassan Taghizadeh, the president of the Senate among some senators, the members of Majlis and editor of Emruz o Farda periodical, from right: Baqer Nikanjam, Aboulfazl Lessani, Hossein Dadgar, Hassan Taghizadeh, Abdollah Vala, Ali Dashti, Bahram Shahrokh and Soleiman Anushirvani

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Fazollah Zahedi's cabinet in one of sessions of both Majlis and the Senate in the Majlis building: 1. Abdollah Hedayat, 2. Fakhraddin Shadman, 3. Mohammad Hossein Adl, 4. Abbass Massoudi, 5. Amanollah Jahanbani, 6. Ebrahim Nabil Samiei, 7. Saeed Malek, 8. Fazllolah Zahedi, 9. Reza Hekmat, 10. Ebrahim Hakimi, 11. Mehdi Malekzadeh

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Ebrahim Hakimi (Hakim-al-Molk), the president of the Senate

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the opening ceremony of a series of Senate sessions; 1. Nader Batmanqelich, 2. Mohammad Ali Varasteh, 3. Iraj Matbui, 4. Mohsen Sadr, the president of the Senate, 5. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 6. Ahmad Reza Pahlavi, 7. Gholam Reza Pahlavi, 8. Ardeshir Zahedi, 9. Mohammad Ali Alavi Moqaddam, 10. Nematollah Nassiri, 11. Aboulfath Atabay, 12. Mahmud Mehran, 13. Khanbaba Bayani

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Saeed Malek, the elder member of the Senate

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi giving a speech in the Senate on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Okafe; at the presence of Otant, general secretary of united nation organization in Tehran; 1, HosseinAli Loqman Edham, 2. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 3. HassanAli Mansur, 4. Abbass Aram, 5. Otant, 6. Assadollah Alam, 7. Alinaghi Alikhani

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Some Senate members of the fifth term of the Senate participating in the Salaam ceremony at the Golestan Palace, 1968, from right: Assadollah Alam, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Jafar Sharif Emami, Mahmud Jam, Mohammad Saed Maraghei, Saeed Malek, Amanollah Jahanbani, Eissa Sediq, Rezazadeh Sahfaq, and Mohammad Hejazi

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Jafar Sharif Emami, the president of the Senate and some Iranian and Japanese dignitaries, from right: 2. Mohsen Khajeh Nouri, 3. Ebrahim Parsa, 5. Jafar Sharif Emami, 6. AbdolHossein Hamzavi (Iranian minister to Japan), 7. Hassan Zahedi, 8. Iraj Matbui

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Jafar Sharif Emami, the president of the Senate

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Farah Pahlavi in the opening ceremony of the seventh terms of the Senate and twenty third term of the Majlis in front of the Senate building, from right: Mohsen Hasheminezhad, AmirAbbass Hoveida, Jafar Sharifemami, Abdollah Riazi (standing behind Farah), Farah Pahlavi, Mostafa Amjadi, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and Changuiz Voshmguir

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The members of the board of the presidents of the two assemblies, the Majlis and the Senate, from right: 1. Lotfollah Raissi, 2. Reza Jafari, 3. Iraj Matbui, 4. Vida Davudi, 5. Abdollah Riazi (the speaker of Majlis), 6. Jafar Sharif Emami (the president of the Senate), 7. Mohammad Sajjadi (the vice president of the Senate), 8. Parri Abasalti, 9. Ezzatollah Yazdanpanah, 10. Hossein Khatibi, 11. Dariush, Shirvani, 12. Mahindokht Sanie, 13. Taher Ziai, 14. Javad Saeed, 15. Mahmud Jalili, 16. Parviz Yarafshar, 17. MohammadAli Massudi, 18. Jamal Ganji, 19. Jafar Mansurian, 20. Khalil aldaghi, 21. Jalaladdin Shademan, 22. Hassan Saebi

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Dr. Mohammad Sajjadi, the last president of the Senate

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