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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  CENTO Treaty

Mehdi Jangravi


Following the August 19th coup, Shah and his court passed out of the crises, and the American financial helps paved the path for militarization. This trend reached to its pick due to the rise in oil prices.


Subsequent to the conclusion of Consortium contract in 1954 and removal of the coup government, Iran oil economics was utilized for the development of military organization and purchase of arms.


Hossein Ala, the last link of Qajar men was chosen for such a day to show moderate policies and to keep closer to the United States of America. Besides the American fear of the Soviet influence, The British feared Jamal AbdolNasser, as the common language of the Arabs. To prevent the Egyptian influence, Iran had to occupy the top of the military pyramid: Baghdad Treaty (which was called CENTO treaty after the removal of Baghdad). Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Pakistan were members of this treaty supervised by the British.


MozaffarAli Zolqadr's cry at Sepahsalar mosque was an echo denoting Iranian hatred of the British. However, the bullet was stuck in the barrel and Ala's assassination was unsuccessful. He attacked Ala on his head and face. Ala attended the Baghdad conference with a bandaged head showing the Iranian's protest against this treaty.


Two years later, Hossein Ala said to John Foster Dulles, secretary of states, "the expenses of Iran are centered on military purchases; and the main goal is not only our own security, but the security of our allies and friends. So we ask for our friends' understandings." Of course, understanding meant the grant of various loans to Iran.

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Hossein Ala, in a visit to Iraq to participate in the conference of Baghdad treaty (Nov. 19th 1955): 1. Hossein Ala, 2. AbdolHossein Hamzavi, 3. Nuri Saeed (Iraq prime minister), 4. Hossein Qods Nakhai (Iranian ambassador to Iraq)

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MozaffarAli Zolqadr, the assailant of Hossein Ala, from the right: Mojtaba Navvab Safavi, Mohammad Vahedi, and MozaffarAli Zolqadr

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Hossein Ala, then the prime minister of Iran talking to Malek Feisal II, the king of Iraq participating in Iraq conference of Nov. 1955

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Session of heads of member countries of Baghdad treaty in Tehran (1956): 1. Aliqoli Ardalan, 2. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 3. Abdollah Entezam, 4. Eskandar Mirza (Pakistan president), 5. Adnan Mandares (Turkish prime minister)

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Manuchehr Iqbal, the prime minister and the other members of the Iranian board participating in CENTO treaty conference in Pakistan: 1. Manuchehr Iqbal, 2. Aliqoli Ardalan, 3. Abdollah Hedayat, 4. Nader Batmanqelij, 5. AbdolHossein Hejazi, 6. Mansur Afkham Ebrahimi, 7. Ali Nowkiani, 8. Jamshid Amuzgar, 9. GholamAbbas Aram, 10. Hassan Pakravan

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Military commanders of supervising and member countries of CENTO treaty, on the fringe of CENTO conference in London, from the left: Abdollah Hedayat, Pakistan representative, the Turkish representative, the British representative, the American representative (a supervising member)

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AbbasAli Khala'tbari, president of CENTO treaty

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The prime minister, Amir Abbas Hoveida among the ministers of foreign affairs attending CENTO treaty conference in Tehran, from the left: 2. GholamAbbas Aram, 3. AbbasAli Khala'tbari, 4. Hossein Qods Nakhai, 5. AmirAbbas Hoveida, 6. Michael Stuart (the British minister for foreign affairs, 7. Din Rusk (American secretary of state)

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Iranian minister for foreign affairs, Ardeshir Zahedi delivering a speech in the inauguration of the first conference of CENTO ministers' council in IslamAbad, 10, 8, 1967; from right: Fowad Ruhani, Ehsan Sabari (Turkish minister for foreign affairs), Mohammad Ayyub Khan (Pakistan president), and Ardeshir Zahedi

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Heads of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey at fringe of CENTO conference in Karachi: 1. Ardeshir Zahedi, 2. Soleiman Demirel (Turkish prime minister), 3. Ehsan Sabri (Turkish minister for foreign affairs) 4. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 5. Mohammad Ayyub Khan

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the company at the Karachi airport, intending to participate in the conference of the heads of CENTO members in Pakistan, 25, 12, 1968: 1. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 2. Ardeshir Zahedi, 3. AmirAbbas Hoveida, Mohammad Ayyub Khan (Pakistan president)

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Ardeshir Zahedi, delivering a speech in the opening ceremony of CENTO treaty session in Turkey

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General Secretary of CENTO, Nassir Assar

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The representatives of the five members CENTO treaty on the fringe of the twentieth conference of the military committee in Washington; from the left: General Akhtar Hossein Malek (Pakistan representative), lieutenant general Amin Alp Kaya (Turkish representative), field martial Bahram Ariana (Iranian representative), field martial Ayril Wailer (chairman), martial Charls Alworthy (the British representative), and field martial Theodore Canway (American representative)

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Iranian and Turkish representatives in the twentieth Conference on military committee of CENTO treaty in Washington, meeting with The American president, Richard Nixon, from left: Richard Nixon, Bahram Ariana and lieutenant general Amin Alp Kaya

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Common interview of Iran Minister for foreign affairs, AbbasAli Khala'tbari and Nassir Assar, general secretary of domestic and foreign correspondents: 1. Nassir Assar, 2. Abbasali Khala'tbari

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Ardeshir Zahedi in one of CENTO's sessions: Fereidun Movasseqi, 2. Ardeshir Zahedi

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Meeting of ministers for foreign affairs of the country members of CENTO treaty with Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, from right: Ardeshir Zahedi, Pakistan minister for foreign affairs, Ehsan Sabri, and the representatives of the United States and the British

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Meeting of military representatives of CENTO treaty members with field martial GholamReza Azhari, head of Iran general staff: 2. Nassir Assar (secretary general of CENTO Treaty), 3. GholamReza Azhari, 5. Lieutenant general Mansur Afkham Ebrahimi) (11/9/1973)

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi among Turkish participants at Tehran CENTO conference: 1. Soleiman Demirel (Turkish prime minister), 2. AbbasAli Khalatbari, 3. Jamshid Qarib, 4. Hormoz Qarib, 5. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, 6. The Turkish president

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AmirAbbas Hoveida delivering a speech at CENTO members' conference of ministers for foreign affairs: 1. AmirAbbas Hoveida, 2. Pakistan minister for foreign affairs, 3. Ardeshir Zahedi, 4. Ehsan Sabri (Turkish minister for foreign affairs)

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