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the foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period

The foundation of political philosophy in Iran-constitutional period


Iranian Contemporary History No. 60


History Hall


  Sit-ins in Constitutionalism

Ebrahim Hadidi


Subsequent to the dispute among merchants and the Belgian Josef Nose (head of Iran customs), the governor of Tehran, Ahmad Ala-od-dowled, recalled some of the Tehran merchants by the order of abdolMajad Einoddowleh and punished them for the rises in the sugar price. This event led to the closure of bazaars, and people's gathering in The Shah Mosque. Great clergies including Mohammad Tabatabai and Abdollah Behbahani supported the merchants. The governmental forces attacked the mosque to scatter the people. The protesters took sanctuary at AbdolAzim Shrine. The next day Shahab-od-dowleh and Majd-od-dowleh, representatives of MozaffarAddin Shah began to carry negotiations with the strikers and announced the Shah's decision to found a justice house. This led to the end of the strike. However there was no sign of the formation of justice house for three months.


The clergies continued to their opposition against the Shah and Ein-od-dowleh. The protesters went to the British legation and staged a sit in there. The clergies went to Qom and declared that they will not return until the foundation of justice house and formation of Majlis, and institution of a constitutional government.


Eventually, after about a month, Mozaffaraddin Shah issued the decree of constitutionalism in August 4th, 1906 and formed the constitutional government which ended to all strikes and sits in.

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Ayatollah Abdollah Behbahani

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Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabai

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Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Khorassani, a clergy of constitutional period

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Seyyed Jamal Vaez Isfahani a pro constitutional preacher

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Three pro constitutional clergies, from right: Molla Abdollah Mazandarani, Mirza Hossein Agha Najl Khalil, Akhund Mohammad Kazem Khorassani

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Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Khorassani, a pro constitutional clergy

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Seyyed Jamal Vaez Isfahani (Jamalzadeh) and Mirza Mostafa Ashtiani, pro constitutional preachers and clergies

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Morteza Sani-od-doleh

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MozaffarAddin Shah Qajar

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Soltan AbdolMajid Mirza Einoddowleh (grand vizier)

Grand vizier, AbdolMajid Mirza Einoddowleh, and his cabinet members: Khalil Saqafi, 2. Soltan Alikhan Vazir Afkham, 3. Esmail Momtazoddowleh, 4. AbdolMajid Mirza Einoddowleh, 5. Reza Arfa', 6. Mohammad Mirza ShamsolMolk

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Governor of Tehran, Ahmad Alaoddowleh

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Ahmad Alaoddowleh

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Freedom loving and constitutionalists at Baghshah prison

The Belgian Joseph Nose and other foreign subjects wearing clerical and other costumes in a masked ball

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Welcome of the clergies in their return to Tehran

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Sit in of Constitutionalists at the Ottoman Legation

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The constitutionalists' sit in at the Ottoman legation

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The constitutionalists' sit in at the Ottoman legation

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Pro constitutional clergies at Mirza Mohsen Sadr-ol-olam's house

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A pro constitutional sit in at the British legation

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Mohammad Taqi Bonakdar and Tehran cloth dealers in their sit in at the British legation

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The sit in of Tehran cloth dealers at the British legation

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Mohammad Taghi Bonakdar and other constitutionalists standing by the rice pots at the British legation

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Mohammad Taghi Bonakdar and other constitutionalists participating in the sit in at the British legation standing by the food trays

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A pro constitutional sit in at the British legation

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The constitutionalists by the wall of the British legation at the time of sit in

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The representatives of the merchants and guilds, holding constitutional decree: 1. AliMohammad Sarraf Isfahani, 2. Mohammad Taghi Shahrudi, 3. Mahmud Sherket Mottafeqe, 4. Ahmad Zargarbashi, 5. Bagher Baqqal, 6. Hassan Shalchi, 7. Mohammad Bagher Kashani, 8. Abdorrahim Arbab, 9. ? 10. Mohammad Ismail Qazvini, 11. Mohammad Bushehri (Moin-ot-tojjar), 12. Mohammad Ali Shalforush, 13. Mohammad Ismail Maghazeh, 14. Hossein Mahdavi (Amin-ozzarb), 15. ?, 16.?, 17. Mohammad Hossein Damad, 18. Mohammad Sarraf Tehrani, 19. Ahmad Mortazavi, 20. AbdolMotalleb Kordestani, 21. Mohsen Mahdavi

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